people leave earliest evidence of human existence in what is now
hunters roam area in search of mammoth, bison and other game.
people flourish throughout Southwest at the end of the last Ice
people are first inhabitants to cultivate corn, squash and beans,
the earliest evidence of agriculture in the Southwest.
culture introduces highly artistic pottery and early architecture
in the form of pit houses.
basketmakers elevate weaving to a high art, creating baskets, clothing,
sandals and utensils.
culture culminates in the highly developed Chaco Civilization.
Indians establish villages along the Rio Grande and its tributaries.
de Vaca, Estevan the Moor and two others reach Culiacdn, Mexico,
after possibly crossing what is now southern New Mexico, and begin
rumors of the Seven Cities of Cibola.
Marcos de Niza and Estevan lead expedition to find Cibola and reach
the Zuni village of Hawikuh, where Estevan is killed.
Vasquez de Coronado explores area from Gulf of California to present-day
Kansas, discovers the Grand Canyon.
Agustin Rodriguez leads expedition to New Mexico; four members of
the party killed by Indians.
Bernadino Beltran and Fray Antonio de Espejo lead expedition to
New Mexico to search for survivors of the ill-fated Rodriguez mission.
de Onate establishes the first Spanish capital of San Juan de los
Caballeros at the Tewa village of Ohke north of present-day Espanola
at Acoma between natives and Spaniards; seeds of Pueblo Revolt sown.
Gabriel, second capital of New Mexico, is founded at the confluence
of the Rio Grande and the Chama River.
desertion of San Gabriel by colonists; new recruits from Spain and
Mexico sent to reinforce colony.
expedition to the Colorado River; visits El Morro, leaves message
on Inscription Rock.
removed as governor and sent to Mexico City to be tried for mistreatment
of the Indians and abuse of power. Decision made by Spanish Crown
to continue settlement of New Mexico as a royal province.
Pedro de Peralta establishes a new capital at Santa Fe. Construction
begins on the Palace of the Governors. Gaspar de Villagra publishes
epic history on the founding of New Mexico, the first book printed
about any area in the modern United States.
Inquisition established in New Mexico.
Gov. Luis de Rosas assassinated by colonists during conflict between
the church and state.
Indian Revolt Spanish survivors flee to El Paso del Norte.
Apaches, and Comanches begin raids against Pueblo Indians.
Diego de Vargas recolonizes Santa Fe. Spanish civilization returns
to New Mexico.
Cruz de la Cahada (Canada) founded.
Pueblo Revolt; efforts thwarted by Gov. De Vargas.
de Albuquerque founded.
trappers reach Santa Fe and begin limited trade with the Spanish.
friars Dominguez and Escalante explore route from out New Mexico
Juan Bautista de Anza makes peace with the Comanches.
school text printed in New Mexico by Padre Antonio Jose Martinez
Pike leads first Anglo American expedition into New Mexico. Publishes
account of way of life in New Mexico upon return to U.S.
declares independence from Spain. Santa Fe Trail opened to international
major gold discovery in western U. S. made in Ortiz Mountains south
of Santa Fe.
Revolt against Mexican taxation leads to the assassination of Gov.
Albino Perez and top officials.
Texas soldiers invade New Mexico and claim all land east of the
Rio Grande. Efforts thwarted by Gov. Manuel Armijo.
War begins. Stephen Watts Kearny annexes New Mexico to the United
Rebellion against the U.S. military. Gov. Chas Charles Bent killed.
of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-American War.
Mexico (which included present-day Arizona, southern Colorado, southern
Utah, and southern Nevada) is designated a territory but denied
Bishop Jean Baptiste Lamy arrives in New Mexico and establishes
schools, hospitals and orphanages throughout the territory
Gadsden Purchase from Mexico adds 45,000 square miles to the territory
invade New Mexico from Texas. The Confederate Territory of Arizona
is declared with the capital at La Mesilla. Territory of Colorado
is created. New Mexico loses extreme northern-most section to the
of Velarde de and Glorieta Pass fought, ends confederate occupation
of New Mexico.
as the "Long Walk," Navajos and Apaches are relocated
to Bosque Redondo: finally allowed to return to their homelands
after thousands die of disease and starvation.
Mexico is partitioned in half. Territory of Arizona is created.
The railroad arrives in New Mexico, opening full-scale trade and
migration from the east and midwest. Lincoln County War erupts in
southeast New Mexico
the Kid shot by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner N.M.
Geronimo surrenders; Indian hostilities cease in the Southwest.
movie filmed in New Mexico, Indian Day School by Thomas A. Edison.
of New Mexico and Arizona vote on issue of joint statehood, New
Mexico voting in favor and Arizona against.
Mexico Constitution drafted in preparation for statehood.
Mexico admitted to the Union as the 47th state.
Villa raids Columbus, N.M.
of the l9th Amendment gives women the right to vote.
of State Soledad Chacon and Superintendent of Public Instruction
Isabel Eckles elected first women to hold statewide office.
Oil is discovered on the Navajo Reservation.
Depression. Federal New Deal funds provide employment for many and
causes numerous public buildings to be constructed.
Mexico soldiers serving in the 200th Coast Artillery during World
War II are captured by the Japanese and forced to endure the Bataan
Death March. Navajo "Codetalkers" are influential in helping
end the war. Secret atomic laboratories established at Los Alamos.
first atomic bomb detonated at Trinity Site in southern New Mexico
after its development at Los Alamos.
allegedly crashes between Roswell and Corona, believers claim U.S.
government institutes massive coverup of the incident.
Americans will the right to vote in state elections.
discovered near Grants.
Holly records Peggy Sue at Norman Petty Studio in Clovis.
state capitol, the "Roundhouse," is dedicated.
new state constitution is rejected by voters.
shuttle Columbia lands at White Sands Space Harbor on Holloman Air
Force Base near Alamogordo.
Mexico observes Columbus Quincentenary, welcomes Cristobal Colon
XX, direct descendent of Christopher Columbus.
Mexico celebrates its cuartocentenario, commemorating its 1598 founding
by Juan de Onate.
Caldera National Preserve established On July 25, 2000, the
American people purchased approximately 89,000 acres of the Baca
Ranch in northern New Mexico.